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阳光创译 | 中医常用术语英文翻译

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中医   ①traditional Chinese medicine②traditional Chinesephysician   ①中医学的简称。②本学科专业职业队伍。

中药   Chinesemateria medica   在中医理论指导下应用的药物。包括中药材、中药饮片和中成药等。

中医学   traditionalChinese medicine   以中医药理论与实践经验为主体,研究人类生命活动中健康与疾病转化规律及其预防、诊断、治疗、康复和保健的综合性科学。

中药学   Chinese materiamedica   中药学科的统称。研究中药基本理论和各种药材饮片、中成药的来源、采制、性能、功效、临床应用等知识的学科。

中医药   traditionalChinese medicine and pharmacology

本草:Materia medica

中药:Chinese materiamedica,Chinese medicinals(包括植物药、动物药、矿物药等)

中草药:Chinese HerbalMedicine,Chinese medicinal herbs

中药学:Chinese pharmaceutics

药材:Medicinalsubstance(material)

中西医结合     integration of traditional and western medicine

中医基础理论   basictheory of traditional Chinese medicine

中医诊断学     diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine  

方剂学          prescriptions of Chinese materia medica,

                 Traditional Chinese Medical   Formulae/ prescriptions

中医内科学   internal medicine of traditional Chinese medicine

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[阴阳]The Theory of Yinand Yang


阴阳对立:Opposition of yin and yang

阴阳制约:Restriction of/between yin and yang

阴阳互根:Interdependence of yin and yang          

阴阳消长:Waxing and waning of yin and yang

阴阳转化:Inter-transformation of yin and yang

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[五行学说]The Theory of Five Elements


五行:water,fire,wood,metal,soil

生:promote, generate,engender

克: act, restrict,restrain

乘:overact,over-restrict, over-restrain, subjugate, overwhelm

侮:counteract,counter-restrict, counter-restrain, rebel

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[整体观念] concept of organicwholeness


辩证法 dialectics

生长化收藏 sprouting, growth, transformation, ripening, storage

内外环境统一性 the unity between the internal and external environments

机体自身整体性 the integrity of the body itself

古代唯物论和辩证法 classic Chinese materialism and dialectics

矛盾统一the contradictory unity

互相联系、相互影响related to each other and influence each other

标本 Biao (secondary aspect) and Ben (primary aspect)

本质与现象nature and phenomena

矛盾的普遍性和特殊性universality and speciality of contradictions

寒者热之Cold disease should be treated by warm therapy

热者寒之warm disease should be treated by cold therapy

虚者补之deficiency syndrome should be treated by tonifying therapy

实者泻之excess syndrome should be treated by purgation therapy

治病必求其本   Treatment of diseases must concentrate on the root cause

同病异治   treatment of the same disease with different therapeutic methods

异病同治   treatment of different diseases with the same therapeutic method

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[精气神]


清阳为天   The lucid Yang ascends to form the heaven

浊阴为地   The turbid Yin descends to constitute the earth

气化   Qi transformation

升降出入 ascending,descending, going out, coming in

出入废则神机化灭,升降息则气立孤危。

If the activities of going out and coming into stop, the transforming mechanism of Shen (Spirit) will be damaged; if the activities of ascending and descending stop, Qi will be immediately isolated and endangered.

精气   Jingqi (Essential-Qi)

先天之精   prenatal essence

后天之精   postnatal essence

神    Shen (spirit)

形神学说   the theory of body and spirit

形与神俱   the body and the Shen (Spirit) exist simultaneously

形神统一   the unity between the body and the Shen (Spirit)

[治则]


病邪   pathogenicfactors

正气存内,邪不可干。

Sufficient Healthy-Qi inside the body will prevent invasion of pathogenic factors.

邪之所凑,其气必虚。

The region where pathogenic factors invades must be deficient in Qi.

顺四时而适寒暑,和喜怒而安居处

Abidance to the changes of the four seasons, active adapation to cold and heat, harmony of emotional changes and peaceful living.

养生防病,延年益寿

cultivating health, preventing disease and prolonging life

[气血津液]

气化 qi transformation

气机 qi movement

元气(原气)primordial ( yuan qi)

真气genuine qi (zhenqi)

宗气pectoral qi (zong qi)

营气nutritive qi( yingqi)

卫气defensive qi(wei qi)

气的推动功能   promoting action of Qi

气的温煦功能   warming actionof Qi

气的防御功能   defending action of Qi

气的固摄功能   controlling action of Qi

气的气化功能   action of Qi Transformation

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[血]

水谷精微   cereal essence

营气和津液   nutrient qiand body fluid

营养和滋润   nourishing and moistening

血主濡之。  

Blood is responsible for nurturing body.

中焦受气取汁,变化而赤,是谓血。

The middle energizer receives qi, takes the juice and transforms into red liquid called blood.

血虚 blood deficiency/asthenia

血瘀 blood stasis/stagnation

血热 blood-heat

血寒 blood-cold

出血 hemorrhage

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[津液]


津液Body fluid /Jin and Ye

稠厚度thickness

成分,功能,分布property, function, distribution

分泌物secreta

胆汁、肠液、鼻涕、眼泪、汗液、尿液gastric juice, intestinal juice, nasal discharge, tears, sweat, urine

形成formation

分布distribution

排泄excretion

脾的传输transmitting of thespleen

肺的宣降dispersing and descenging of the lung

肾的蒸腾气化steaming and transforming of the kidney

三焦为通道the triple energizerserve as the passage-way

饮入于胃,游溢精气,上输于脾,脾气散精,上归于肺,通调水道,下输膀胱,水精四布,五经并行。

After food and water have entered the stomach, they are digested and transformed into food essence and then, transmitted upward to the spleen, which disperses the essence upward to the lung and the lung regulates water pathways downward to the urinary bladder. And by doing so body fluid is finally disseminated to all parts of the body along all the meridians and collaterals.

津液由胃中消化吸收、小肠进行分清别浊、脾运化的水谷中形成;津液的分布和排泄由许多脏腑组织共同完成,如脾的运化功能、肺的宣发肃降功能、肾的蒸发沉降功能;津液以三焦为通道进行分布和排泄。

Body fluid is formed from food and water by digestion and absorption of the stomach, separating the clarity from the turbidity of the small intestine and tramformation of the spleen;   the distribution and excretion of body fluid are accomplished by the joint action of many zang-fu organ, such as the transforming function of the spleen, the dispersing and descending function of the lung, the steaming and ascending function of the kidney; and   body fluid takes triple energizer as its passage way for distribution and excretion.


[藏象学说]The Theory of Visceral Manifestations

脏腑   the internalorgans, viscera.

藏/脏 solid organs, viscera, depots, zang organs, yin organs

府/腑 hollow organs, bowels (the intestines), palaces, fu organs, yang organs

五脏   five viscera,five zang organs, the yin organs

六腑   six bowels, six fu organs, the yang organs

心,肝,脾,肺,肾

heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney

胆,胃,大肠,小肠,膀胱,三焦

gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, smallintestine, (urinary) bladder, triple energizer/burner

奇恒之腑   extraordinary fu organs

脑、髓、骨、脉、胆、女子胞

brain, marrow, bone, vessel, gallbladder, uterus

心包 pericardium

上/中/下焦   upper/ middle/lower energizer/burner

命门      gate of life, life gate, vital gate, gate of vitality

苗窍      signal orifice

膻中      thoracic center

膜(募)原 interior-exteriorinterspace

五神 five emotions

五华 five lustre

五体 five bodyconstituents

五志 five minds

五液 five humors

七情 seven emotions

膏肓cardio-diaphgramaticinterspace

丹田Dantan /Elixir field

赤白肉际:dorso-ventral boundary (of the hand or foot),

house of blood (血府): blood vessel

house of marrow (髓府): bone

sea of blood (血海): liver (orconception vessel)

sea of marrow (髓海): brain

blood chamber (血室): uterus (orconception vessel)

essence chamber (精室):life gate

藏精气而不泻 storing essencewithout leaking

传化物而不藏 digesting andtransporting food and drink without storing essence /transform food into essence but not store it

心主血脉。The heart governs the blood and (blood ) vessels.

The heart regulates the flow of blood.(circulation)

心藏神。The heart stores the spirit.

心开窍于舌。The heart opens into the tongue.

舌为心之苗窍。The tongue is the sprout of the heart.

心,其华在面。

The Heart’s brilliance manifests in the face.

The heart’s bloom is in the face.

The heart has its outward manifestations on theface.

心与小肠相表里。

The heart stands in interior-exterior relationship with the small intestine.

肺主气,通调水道。

The lung governs qi.

The lung regulates the waterways.

The lungs move and adjust the Water Channels.

肺主皮毛。

The lung governs the skin and [body] hair.

The lung is in charge of the body surface.

肺合皮毛。

The lung is interrelated with the skin and [body]hair.

The brilliance of the Lungs manifests in the bodyhair.

In other words, the Lungs regulate the secretion of sweat, the moistening of the skin, and resistance to External Pernicious Influences.

肺开窍于鼻。The lung opens at thenose.

鼻为息道。The nose is the“thoroughfare for respiration”.

Many common nose and throat disorders aretherefore treated through the Lungs.

肺与大肠相表里。

The lung stands in interior-exterior relationship with the large intestine.

The lung governs qi and the heart governs blood.

肺为贮痰之器,脾为生痰之源。

The lung is the receptacle that holds phlegm and the spleen is the source of phlegm formation.

肺为气之主,肾为气之根。

The lung is the governor of qi and the kidney is the root of qi.

肺主一身之表。

The lung is in charge of the body surface.

肺主气,司呼吸。

The lung governs qi, performs respiration/controlls breathing

主宣发肃降governs disseminating, cleansing and descending/ governs diffusion, purification and descending

通调水道   regulates the waterways

肺朝百脉,主治节

The lung connecting all vessels/The lung faces all the blood vessels, governs management and regulation

脾主运化水谷,输布精微。

The spleen governs movement (transportation) and transformation of grain and water and distribution of its essence.

脾统血。

The spleen manages the blood.

脾主肌肉和四肢,开窍于口。

The spleen governs the flesh and limbs, and opens into the mouth.

胃主受纳和腐熟水谷。

Take in, food intake

Decompose, digest food into chyme

The stomach governs intake and decomposition (digestion) of grain and water.

升清

Send clarity (pure) upward

小肠主泌别清浊。

The small intestine governs separation of theclear and the turbid.

大肠主传化糟粕。

the large intestine governs transformation and conveyance of waste.

肝主疏泄。

The liver governs free coursing, which refers toliver qi’s physiological function of ensuring smooth free flow (of qi and blood).  

Ensuring smooth and regular floe of qi;

胆汁的化生和排泄

Secretion and discharge of bile

Emotional disturbance: mental depression, impatience,etc.

肝藏血。

The liver stores blood.

肝藏血是指肝有贮存血液和调节血量的作用。

The liver is capable of retaining blood and regulating the amount of blood in the body.

食气入胃,淫精于肝。

Food qi enters the stomach and sends essence to the liver.

肝主筋,其华在爪。

The liver governs the sinews; its bloom is the nails.

肝主筋。爪为筋之余。肝,其华在爪。

The liver governs the sinews: the movement of all the sinews of the body is associated with the liver.

肝开窍于目。The liver opens atthe eyes.

肾藏精,主生长、发育和生殖。

The kidney stores essence (or essential qi), andis responsible for growth, development, and reproduction. (maturation)

肾主骨、生髓。

The kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow.

肾主水。

The kidney governs water.

肾开窍于耳和二阴。其华在发。

The kidney opens into the ears and the two yin(the two private parts: the urethra and anus) and its bloom is in the hair of the head.

moisten and nourish 滋养和濡润

warm and activate推动和温煦

produce and store essence 化生和贮藏精气

receive, trsport and transform water and food 受盛和传化水谷

Viscera inside the body must manifest themselves externally.

有诸内,必形诸外。

Kidney yin and kidney yang are in reality two antagonistic and complementary aspects of kidney essential qi.

Detriment (damage or harm) to yin affects yang.

Detriment to yang affects yin

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[病因]Etiology


邪,病邪 Evil; Pathogenic factor; Pathogen

六淫six excesses; six exogenous pathogenic factors; six climatic pathogenic factors; Six external pernicious influences

风、寒、暑、湿、燥、火 wind, cold,summer-heat, dampness, dryness,fire

外感六淫diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic factor

六气Six qi; Six natural factors;Six climatic factors; Six climatic influences;Six exogenous qi

疫疠(疠气)Pestilence; pestilential qi

内生五邪 Five Endogenous Pathogenic Factors; Five Internal Pernicious Influences

七情 seven emotions; seven affects

喜、怒、忧、思、悲、恐、惊   joy, anger, melancholy (sadness, worry), anxiety (pensiveness, contemplation),   grief (sorrow), fear, fright

七情内伤internal damage due to seven emotions

饮食Improper diet; imbalanced diet

内伤脾胃,百病由生。

Internal damage of the spleen and stomach will result in the occurrence of various diseases./The occurrence of various diseases may result from the   internal damage of the spleen and stomach.

外伤   traumaticinjuries

跌打损伤,金刃伤,虫兽咬伤 Traumatic injuries due to fall, cuts, insect or animal bites

痰饮   Phlegm-fluid

瘀血   Blood stasis


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