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阳光创译 | 翻译技巧:长句分译

编辑:Suntrans¦发表时间:2021-10-21

分译,也称断句或拆句,就是把原文的一句话译成两句或者更多句。需要分译的句子多是长句,或是结构复杂的复句。


汉语中的流水句很多时候出现“一逗到底”的现象,这种句子如果翻译成英文的长句,有时会使译文累赘冗长,语义模糊,如果采用分译,会使原文内容层次分明,易于理解,更符合译入语的表达习惯。


1.按内容层次分译汉语的长句里,有一部分说明一方面的情况,另一部分说明另一方面的情况,英译时往往根据 内容的层次 断句分译,使译文更清晰明快。


例如:


(1)秋天,无论在什么地方的秋天,总是好的;可是啊,北国的秋,却特别地来得清,来得静,来得悲凉。(郁达夫《故都的秋》)


Autumn,wherever it is,always has something to recommend itself.In North China,however,it is particularly,limpid,serene and melancholy.(张培基 译)


(2)那是力争上游的一种树,笔直的干,笔直的枝。它的干呢,通常是丈把高,像是加以人工似的,一丈以内,绝无旁枝;它所有的桠枝呢,一律向上,而且紧紧靠拢,像是加以人工似的,成为一束,绝无横斜逸出;它的宽大的叶子也是片片向上,几乎没有斜生的,更不用说倒垂了;它的皮,光滑而有银色的晕圈,微微泛出淡青色。(茅盾《白杨礼赞》)


It is an aspiring tree with a straight trunk and straight branches.The trunk is usually about a few feet high,as if man- made,with no lateral boughs for ten feet,and all its forked branches thrust upwards close together,as if man- made too,forming a cluster with none straying sideways or at an angle.All the broad leaves too rise upwards with hardly one slanting,let alone drooping down.The bark is a glossy silver halo tinged with light green.(戴乃迭 译)


(3)杜丽娘不顾一切,掩声而入,只见柳梦梅先前剔过的油灯此刻又明灭不定,便趋步案前,再续上一些灯油,剔出一节灯草,灯光渐渐明亮,不一会儿灯草居然结出并头结。(汤显祖著、陈美林改编《牡丹亭》)


She took a risk and entered to find that the oil lamp that he had lit had become dim.She added some oil and soon the room was brightly lit with two parallel strands of wick—a good omen for a marriage.(匡佩华、曹珊 译)


2.原句出现反问句、反诘句或感叹句处分译汉语长句中有反问句、反诘句或感叹句,英译时可分译。


例如:


(1)很显然,他反对这项提议,否则他为什么一直沉默不语?


It is clear that he is opposed to the proposal.If not,why did he keep silent?


(2)应当承认,每个民族都有它的长处,不然它为什么能存在?为什么能发展?(《毛泽东选集》五卷)


It must be admitted that every nation has its strong points.If not,how can it survive?How can it progress?


(3)摩天大楼与经济危机的关联如此密切,很难用巧合来理解,那么究竟是什么原因让经济危机总是与摩天大楼如影随形?


The correlation between super tall buildings and economic crises is too close to be coincidental.What is it then that keeps them so closely tied to each other?


(4)被观众鼓了几声掌就飘飘然,就忘乎所以,就选成了歌星,就坐飞机,就灌唱片,这简直是胡闹!是对灵魂的腐蚀!(王蒙《长胜的歌手》)


Once one gets some applause,one' s head will swell.And one will be treated like a star,given free plane trips and invited to have voice recorded everywhere.It' s ridiculous!It' s nothing but corruption of the mind!(朱柏桐 译)



图 | https://www.dpm.org.cn/light/249342.html


3.原句出现总说或分述时分译汉语有些句子习惯先总说,后分述,或者是先详尽阐述,后作概括。若是前一种情况,则在总说部分断句分译;若是后一种情况,则将最后的总结或概括断句分译。


例如:


(1)少年是一去不复返的,等到精力衰减时,要做学问也来不及了。(胡适《不要抛弃学问》)


Youth will soon be gone never to return.And it will be too late for you to go into scholarship when in your declining years.(张培基 译)


(2)我们的政策是实行“一个国家,两种制度”,具体说,就是在中华人民共和国内,十亿人口的大陆实行社会主义制度,香港、台湾实行资本主义制度。(《邓小平文选》第三卷)


We are pursuing a policy of“one country with two systems”.More specifically,this means that within the People' s Republic of China,the main land with its one billion people will maintain the socialist system,while Hong Kong and Taiwan continue under the capitalist system.


(3)不晓得季节与结婚有什么关系,但是从初冬到春天结婚的人数比其他季节多了很多,也许就是所谓的结婚季节吧。


Don' t know what relation exists between the season and marriage,but the number of marriages is much greater from early winter to spring than in other seasons.Maybe this is the season of marriage people usually call.


4.为强调语气而分译


(1)我们主张对我国神圣领土台湾实行和平统一,有关的政策,也是众所周知的和不会改变的,并且正在深入全中华民族的心坎。(《邓小平文选》第三卷)


We want peaceful reunification with Taiwan which is part of our sacred territory.Our policy in this regard is also known to all and will not change.The desire for peaceful reunification of the motherland is taking hold in the hearts of the entire Chinese nation.


(2)灾难深重的中华民族,一百年来,其优秀人物奋斗牺牲,前赴后继,摸索救国救民的真理,是可歌可泣的。


For a hundred years,the finest sons and daughters of the disaster- ridden Chinese nation fought and sacrificed their lives,one stepping into the breach as another fell,in quest of the truth that would save the country and the people.This moved us to songs and tears.


(3)否则,我们走倦了就睡在铁道旁边,或者跑到对面的小山上去,青草做我们的床,白云做我们的被,还有悬在天空中的不灭的灯光,夜莺的音乐,多么幸福啊!(谢冰莹《黄昏》)


Otherwise,when we got tired,we could lie down sleeping beside the railway,or go up the opposite hill to lie on top with sleeping grass as our bed,the white clouds as our quilts,and with inextinguishable lights over us in the sky and nightingales singing sweet songs.Oh,how happy we would be!(张培基 译)



图 | https://www.dpm.org.cn/light/236934.html


5.从关联词处分译


(1)声速随温度的升降会有轻微的增减,但不受气压的影响。


The speed of sound increases slightly with a rise in temperature and falls with decrease in temperature.It is not affected by the pressure of the air.


(2)我在学堂里坐着,心里也闷,不如给他家放牛,倒快活些。


I feel sitting in school boring anyway.I' d rather look after our neighbor' s buffaloes.


(3)电车到站时,他没等车停就抢先跳下来,险些摔一跤,亏得撑着手杖,左手推在电杆木上阻住那扑向地的势头。(钱钟书《围城》)


When the trolley car reached his stop,he rushed ahead and jumped off without waiting for the trolley car to come to a stop,nearly falling down as he did so.Luckily,by supporting himself with his cane and pushing against a utility pole with his left hand,he managed to check his downward momentum.(Translated by Jeanne Kelly and Nathan K.Mao)


(4)有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。(孔子《论语》)


If things go amiss,he who knows the harmony will be able to attune them.But if harmony itself is not modulated by ritual,things will still go amiss.(Translated by Arthur Waley)


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